Physical and Emotional Repercussions of Pregnancy during Adolescence

Main Article Content

Luiz Antonio Del Ciampo
Ieda Regina Lopes Del Ciampo


Adolescence is a phase marked by physical, emotional and, social changes culminating with sexual development and final adult height, which occur at different stages during the second decade of life. Due to their characteristics of immaturity, impulsiveness, and tendencies to take risky behaviors with sexual activity starting earlier, adolescents are subject to becoming pregnant during the first years after menarche. This article presents some characteristics of the adolescent's growth and development and the repercussions of pregnancy on her physical growth and emotional maturity.

Adolescent, adolescent pregnancy, adolescent growth, adolescent development

Article Details

How to Cite
Ciampo, L. A. D., & Ciampo, I. R. L. D. (2020). Physical and Emotional Repercussions of Pregnancy during Adolescence. Asian Journal of Pediatric Research, 4(1), 17-22.
Minireview Article


Das JK, Salam RA, Thornburg KL, Prentice AM, Campisi S, Zohra S, et al. Nutrition in adolescents: Physiology, metabolism, and nutritional needs. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2017;1393:21–33.

Casey BJ, Jones RM, Hare TD. The adolescent brain. An N York Acad Sci 2008;1124:111-126.

WHO. Adolescent pregnancy.


Accessed on 14 Jun 2020.

Lenders CM, McElrath TF, Scholl TO. Nutrition in adolescent pregnancy. Cur Opin Pediatric 2000,12:291–296.

Styne DM. The regulation of pubertal growth. Horm Res 2003;60(suppl 1):22–26.

Xu Y, Hao G, Gao B. Application of growth hormone in vitro fertilization. Front Endocrinol 2019;10:502-511.

Roche A, Davila GH. Late adolescent growth in stature. Pediatrics. 1972;50:874-880.

Singleton A, Patois E, Pedron M, Roy P. Croissance de la taile, du segment superiur et du diametre biiliaque chez la filie après I'apparition des premieres regies. Arch Franc Red. 1975;32:859-870.

Wallace JM. Competition for nutrients in pregnant adolescents: consequences for maternal, conceptus and offspring endocrine systems. J Endocrinol. 2019;242: T1–T19.

Leppert PC. The Effect of pregnancy on adolescent growth and development. Women Health. 1984;9:65-79.

Hill CC, Pickinpaugh J. Physiologic changes in pregnancy. Surg Clin N Am. 2008;88:391-401.

Laurenzi CA, Gordon S, Abrahams N, du Toit S, Bradshaw M, Brand A, et al. Psychosocial interventions targeting mental health in pregnant adolescents and adolescent parents: A systematic review. Reprod Health. 2020;17:65-72.

Black AY, Fleming NA, Rome ES. Pregnancy in adolescents. Adolesc Med. 2012;23:123-138.

Nkhoma DE, Lin C, Katengeza HL, Soko CJ, Estinfort W, Wang Y, et al. Girls’ empowerment and adolescent pregnancy: a systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;1664:1-14.

Canavan CR, Fawzi WW. Addressing knowledge gaps in adolescent nutrition: toward advancing public health and sustainable development. Curr Dev Nutr. 2019;3:1-3.

Partridge SR. Current dietary advice and challenges for adolescents. Br Med Bull 2020;3;ldaa015.

[Online ahead of print]

Gigante DP, Rasmussen KM, Victora CG. Pregnancy increases BMI in adolescents of a population-based birth cohort. J Nutr. 2005;135:74–80.

Schneider D. International trends in adolescent nutrition. Soc Sci Med. 2000; 51:955–967.

Lundeen EA, Behrman JR, Crookston BT. Growth faltering and recovery in children aged 1–8 years in four low-and middle-income countries: Young lives. Public Health Nutr. 2014;17:2131–2137.

Teivaanmaki T, Cheung YB, Kortekangas E. Transition between stunted and nonstunted status: Both occur from birth to 15 years of age in Malawi children. Acta Paediatr. 2015;104:1278–1285.

Larson NI. Nutritional problems in childhood and adolescence: A narrative review of identified disparities. Nutr Res Rev. 2020;1-31.

[Online ahead of print].

Hawkes CP, Grimberg A. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I is a marker for the nutritional state. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2015;13:499–511.

Rah JH, Christian P, Shamim AA. Pregnancy and lactation hinder growth and nutritional status of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh. J Nutr 2008;138:1505–1511.

Christian P, Smith ER. Adolescent undernutrition: Global burden, physiology, and nutritional risks. Ann Nutr Metab. 2018;72:316–328.

Silva JB, Elias BC, Mais LA, Warkentin S, Konstantyner T, Oliveira FLC. Factors associated with milk inadequate consumption among adolescents: National School Health Survey. Rev Paul Pediatr. 2019;38:1-9.

Gómez AL, Kraemer WJ, Maresh CM, Lee EC, Szivak TK, Caldwell LK, et al. Resistance training and milk-substitution enhance body composition and bone health in adolescent girls. J Am Coll Nutr. 2020;1-18.

[Online ahead of print].

Cooper C, Harvey N, Javard K, Hanson M, Denison E. Growth and bone development. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2008;61:53-68.

Gordon RJ, Gordon CM. Adolescents and Bone Health. Clin Obstet Gynecol; 2020.

[Online ahead of print].

Pinho-Pompeu M, Paulino DSM, Surita FG. Influence of breakfast and meal frequency in calcium intake among pregnant adolescents. Matern Child Nutr 2020;e13034.

[Online ahead of print].

Willemse JPMM, Meertens LJE, Scheepers HCJ, Achten NMJ, Eussen SJ, van Dongen MC, et al. Calcium intake from diet and supplement use during early pregnancy: the Expect Study I. Eur J Nutr. 2020;59:167–174.

Pitkin RM. Calcium metabolism in pregnancy and the perinatal period: A review. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985;151: 99-109.

Winter EM, Ireland A, Butterfielf NC, Haffner-Luntzer M, Horcajada MN, Veldhui-PunhoVlug AG, et al. Pregnancy and lactation, a challenge for skeleton. Endocr Connect 2020;EC-20-0055.R1.

[Online ahead of print].

Zhu X, Zheng H. Factors influencing peak bone mass gain. Front Med; 2020.

[Online ahead of print].

Hosseini SA, Ranjit K. Padhy RK. Body image distortion: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020.

Alleva JM, Sheeran P, Webb TL, Martijn C, Miles E. A meta-analytic review of stand-alone interventions to improve body image. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0139177.

Irvine KR, McCarty K, McKenzie KJ, Pollet TV, Cornelissen KK, Tovée MJ, Cornelissen PL. Distorted body image influences body schema in individuals with negative bodily attitudes. Neuropsychol 2019;122:38-50.

Šmídová S, Švancara J, Andrýsková L, Šimůnek J. Adolescent body image: results of Czech Elspac Study. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2018;26:60–66.

Hartman-Munick SM, Gordon AR, Guss C. Adolescent body image: Influencing factors and the clinician's role. Curr Opin Pediatr; 2020.

[Online ahead of print].

Himanshu A, Kaur A, Kaur A, Singla G. Rising dysmorphia among adolescents: A cause for concern. J Family Med Prim Care. 2020;9:567-570.

Zaltzman A, Falcon B, Harrison ME. Body image in adolescent pregnancy. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2015;28:10210-8.

Audinet C. Thephysical impact of pregnancy on a teenager. Soins Pediatr Pueric. 2016;37:22-24.

Patton GC, Sawyer SM, Santelli JS, Ross DA, Afifi R, Allen NB et al. Our future: a Lancet commission on adolescent health and wellbeing. Lancet. 2016;387:2423–2478