Detection of HIV-1 and -2 Antibodies among Children and Knowledge, Attitude, Perceptions and Practices (KAPP) of Their Parents in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Iheanyi O. Okonko
Tochi I. Cookey
Ifeyinwa N. Chijioke-Nwauche
Sofiat Adewuyi-Oseni
Charles C. Onoh


Aim: Paediatric testing for HIV in low-income and middle-income countries is poor and must be raved up as this is important for treatment and survival among this disease-prone demographic area. This study was carried out to detect the presence of HIV-1 and -2 antibodies among children receiving health care service in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. It also aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, perceptions and practices of their parents on HIV/AIDS in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between August 2012 and July 2015.

Methods: One hundred subjects (58 males and 42 females) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected randomly from children in the outpatient department of the hospital. HIV-1/2 was detected using Gen ScreenTM ULTRA HIV Ag-Ab Kit (BIO-RAD), an ELISA based test kit following the manufacturer's instructions.

Results: The overall prevalence was found to be 5.0%. The gender-specific infection rate shows that males had a higher infection rate (5.2%) for HIV infection than their female counterparts (4.8%). The age-specific prevalence showed that the children in age groups 8-10 years had a higher prevalence (6.7%) than those 2-4 years (4.5%) and 5-7 years (4.2%). None appeared to be significantly associated (P>0.05) with HIV-1/2 antibodies prevalence among the children population. The knowledge, attitude, perceptions and practices of parents of the children indicate that 100.0% of them believed HIV/AIDS is real and children live with it; 62.0% have been screened for HIV before while 38.0% have not; 77.0% believe HIV cannot be cured while 19.0% believe it can; 66.0% know that it can be transmitted from mother to child whereas 16.0% believe it cannot and 70.0% confirmed they share sharp objects.

Conclusion: This study however further confirmed the presence of HIV-1 and 2 antibodies among Children in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. HIV can affect all age groups, both males and females. Health education campaigns and training on HIV prevention and control is recommended.

HIV, outpatients, ELISA, seropositivity, children.

Article Details

How to Cite
Okonko, I. O., Cookey, T. I., Chijioke-Nwauche, I. N., Adewuyi-Oseni, S., & Onoh, C. C. (2021). Detection of HIV-1 and -2 Antibodies among Children and Knowledge, Attitude, Perceptions and Practices (KAPP) of Their Parents in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Pediatric Research, 5(1), 6-12.
Original Research Article


NACA (2017). National strategic framework on HIV and AIDS; 2017-2021.
Abvailable: Accessed July 2020.

UNAIDS. AIDSinfo; Data sheet; 2019.
Available: Accessed July 2020.

AVERT. HIV and AIDS in Nigeria; 2018.
Available: Accessed July 2020.

National Agency for the Control of AIDS. National Prevention Plan 2014-2015. Federal Republic of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria. 2013;1-85.
Available: Accessed July

NACA. Nigeria Global AIDS Response Progress Report (GARPR); 2015.
Available: Accessed July 2020

UNAIDS Global AIDS Update. Ending AIDS: Progress towards the 90-90-90 targets; 2017.
Available: Accessed July 2020.

UNAIDS. Prevention Gap Report; 2016.
Available: Accessed July 2020

UNAIDS (2018). Start free, Stay free, AIDS-free; progress report; 2017.
Available: Accessed July 2020

UNAIDS. Data Book; 2017.
Available: Accessed July 2020

Nigeria National Agency for the Control of AIDS (2014) 'Global AIDS Response Country Progress Report; 2014.
Available. Accessed July 2020

Ogbonna DN, Amangabara GT, Ekere TO. Urban solid waste generation in Port Harcourt metropolis and its implications for waste management, Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal. 2007;18(1).

National Population Commission (NPC). Census of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Federal Republic of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria; 2006.

Macfarlane SB. Conducting a Descriptive Survey: 2. Choosing a Sampling Strategy. Tropical Doctors. 1997;27(1):14-21.

Naing L, Winn T, Rusli BN. Practical issues in calculating the sample size for prevalence. Studies Archives of Orofacial Sciences. 2006;1:9–14.

Cheesbrough M. Medical Laboratory Manual for Tropical Countries ELBS. 2006;7:312-315.

Venn J, Ochigbo SO, Anah M, Asindi A. HIV seroprevalence among infants attending immunization centres in Calabar metropolis Cross River State, Southern Nigeria. International Journal of Children Health and Nutrition. 2016;5(3):1-4.

Ochigbo SO, Torty C, Anah M. Prevalence of HIV infection among siblings of HIV positive children in Calabar, Nigeria. Pan African Medical Journal. 2019;32:179.

Cohn J, Whitehouse K, Tuttle J, Lueck K, Tran T. Paediatric HIV testing beyond the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet HIV. 2016;3:e473–81.

Ogunbosi BO, Oladokun RE, Brown BJ, Osinusi KI. Prevalence and clinical pattern of paediatric HIV infection at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria: a prospective cross-sectional study. Italian Journal of Paediatrics. 2011;37(1):29

Ogunbosi BO, Oladokun RE, Awolude O, Brown B. Missed opportunities for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. World Journal of AIDS. 2014;4(3): 356-364.

Okonkwo U, Ameh S, Out A, Okpara H. HIV-Related knowledge, attitude and practices of healthy adults in Cross River State Nigeria: A population based-survey. Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research. 2017;8:699.

Obimbo EM. Current challenges in paediatric HIV care-What is happening in the countries? 8th INTEREST workshop. Janssen HIV paediatric HIV Satellite Symposium, 6th May 2014, Lusaka Zambia; 2014.