Open Access Short Research Article
Background: The risk factors of neonatal jaundice are largely known, yet there is little agreement on the association between it and perinatal asphyxia.
Aim: To investigate the association between severe perinatal asphyxia (SPA) and the risk of clinical jaundice (NNJ) among neonates managed at the Federal Medical Centre, Azare, Nigeria.
Methodology: Case control design was employed. Medical records of 315 babies managed at the special care baby unit from 1st January, 2011 to 31st December, 2018 were analysed. The exposure of interest was SPA and the outcome was jaundice. Logistic regression was applied to demonstrate the relationship between neonatal jaundice and SPA. Relative risk was provided as odds ratio and 95% confidence interval.
Results: Sixty-three cases and 252 controls were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the cases (4.39) and that of the controls (4.95 ) did not differ significantly (t= -0.52, P= 0.30). One hundred and fifty-six (61.9%) of the controls were males while 34 (54.0%) of the cases were females. For 59 (93.7%) of the cases treatment for jaundice was done with phototherapy and 1.6% required exchange blood transfusion. SPA significantly reduced the risk of developing NNJ (adjusted OR = 0.27, P-value ˂ 0.01).
Conclusion: We demonstrated a significantly reduced risk of developing neonatal jaundice with prior exposure to severe perinatal asphyxia. Prospective multicenter and community based studies correlated with serum bilirubin levels are recommended.
Open Access Original Research Article
Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is an infection of the lung parenchyma that is acquired outside of hospital,  involved approximately 150 million new cases annually, among children younger than 5 years old worldwide. We retrospectively evaluated the effect of Prednisolone in 89 children with CAP who were admitted to the 2nd hospital of Shandong University (China) and Infectious diseases of Andijon region (Uzbekistan). The mean age was 6.3 in China (Placebo) and 9.3 in Uzbekistan (control) years, 54% and 52% of them were boys respectively. All children had received broad spectrum antibiotics (cephalosporin) or Macrolides (Azithromycin) and Oxygen. In addition to these we added Prednisolone 1 mg/kg on day 2 of admission to control group. 24 (68.5% from all febrile) children were became afebrile within 24 hours after Predisolone use on day 3 of admission, and their clinical status developed in control group, when it was achieved on day 7 in Placebo group. Hospital days also shortened in control group (6 days) than placebo (8 days) (p value ≤ 0.01). In conclusion, steroid therapy helpful for reducing hospital stay and morbidity in children with community-acquired Pneumonia and no observed side effects.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: To determine the factors associated with the occurrence of skin diseases among children attending the Children’s Outpatient Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH).
Study Design: A Cross sectional study design was used. It was both descriptive and analytical.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Children’s Outpatient Clinic of the Department of Paediatrics, UPTH from June to August 2020 (3 months).
Methodology: We studied 370 children aged less than 18 years. A semi structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain all relevant data. This was followed by dermatological examination of the children to make diagnosis of skin diseases. Relevant samples for laboratory confirmation were also obtained where necessary.
Results: Among the 88 children (23.7%) who had skin diseases, our study showed that the socio-demographic factors associated with the occurrence of skin diseases includes: male gender (p=0.001) and low socio-economic class (p<0.001). Hygiene-related factors associated with occurrence of skin diseases includes: lack of water within the home (p=0.001), bath frequency < twice per day (p=0.001) and sharing of personal items (p<0.001). On multiple logistic regression analysis of these factors, the factors predictive of skin diseases were: male gender (p=0.000), low and middle socioeconomic class (p=0.004) and lack of water within the home (p=0.013).
Conclusion: Several socio-demographic and hygiene-related factors were identified to be associated with the occurrence of skin diseases among children in our study. These factors provide an important window for interventions to prevent and control the burden of skin diseases among children in our setting.