Open Access Case Report

Aorto-pulmonary Window, a Rare Congenital Heart Disease: Case Report

M. Lakhrissi, A. Ayad, M. Kmari, A. Ourrai, A. Hassani, R. Abilkassem, A. Agadr

Asian Journal of Pediatric Research, Page 17-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajpr/2021/v7i130206

Aortopulmonary window (APW) is an uncommon congenital cardiac malformation, accounting for 0.1% of all congenital cardiac diseases. It is a defect between the ascending aorta and the trunk of the pulmonary artery. Such abnormality may occur as an isolated lesion or it can be associated with other cardiac abnormalities in one third to one half of cases. Clinical and hemodynamic presentation of this condition depends on the size of the defect and on the associated lesions. It is usually fatal in infancy or childhood if untreated with the development of irreversible pulmonary hypertension. Once the diagnosis is made, surgery must be performed quickly to avoid irreversible pulmonary vascular disease. We report the case of a 5-month-old infant with APW who was referred to our center by respiratory symptoms and heart murmurs.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Creditable Health Information? An Analysis of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Messages on YouTube

Angela Chia-Chen Chen, Elizabeth Reifsnider, Lihong Ou, Steven Samrock, Renuka Vemuri, Lance Lim, Gail Hock, Davis Lu

Asian Journal of Pediatric Research, Page 8-16
DOI: 10.9734/ajpr/2021/v7i130205

Aims: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection globally. Vaccination is effective in preventing HPV-associated cancers and is recommended for children at ages 11-12; however, the vaccination rate is suboptimal. Credible information about HPV vaccine in social media will help the public make effective healthcare decisions. This study analyzed YouTube videos about HPV vaccine.

Study Design: Descriptive study. 

Place and Duration of Study: Videos in English posted on YouTube during 2006-2020.

Methodology: We used purposive sampling to select and conduct a quantitative content analysis of 151 YouTube videos that met the criteria. An instrument including video characteristics and theoretical constructs of the Health Belief Model was used to code the videos. Three researchers independently coded the data; another three verified the accuracy. The team discussed discrepancies until reaching a consensus. We conducted descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: The major source of videos were medical centers/hospitals (26%), government (22%), media (20%), and consumers (15%). About 80% of the videos were positive in tone. Information covered included vaccine knowledge (85.4%), benefits (81.5%), severity if infected (79.5%), susceptibility (60.9%), and barriers (37.7%). The primary vaccination barriers were lack of knowledge of HPV and vaccine (12.6%), worries about adverse events/safety of vaccine (14.6%) and its side effects (9.3%). Videos in neutral tone had the highest number of views, likes and dislikes. Negative tone was mostly found in videos made by consumers and media while positive tone was found in videos made by governmental agencies and medical center/hospital.  

Conclusion: Despite YouTube being a popular avenue to disseminate health information and influence care, the HPV-related information on YouTube is mixed. Anecdotal health information without scientific support can mislead individuals’ decision in vaccination. Educational videos with comprehensive and accurate HPV information addressing barriers are imperative to promote vaccination and prevent HPV-related cancers.

Open Access Case Study

Clinical and Biological Characteristics of Congenital Hypothyroidism: A Family Case Study

Nadia Mebrouk, Ahmed Gaouzi, Asmae Touzani, Yamna Kriouile

Asian Journal of Pediatric Research, Page 22-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajpr/2021/v7i130207

Hypothyroidism is the condition of thyroid hormone deficiency. It can be primary or acquired. Primary hypothyroidism can be congenital or late onset. The symptoms of congenital hypothyroidism may go unnoticed in newborns if undiagnosed. Untreated, hypothyroidism can lead to poor mental and intellectual development in children. Hypothyroidism’s clinical manifestations are often subtle or not present at birth. Common symptoms include decreased activity and increased sleep, feeding difficulty, and constipation. On examination, common signs include myxoedematous facies, large fontanels, macroglossia, a distended abdomen with umbilical hernia, and hypotonia. Levothyroxine is the treatment of choice. In general, the prognosis is excellent when this condition is detected by screening and started on treatment early.

Open Access Original Research Article

Early Outcome of Cold Knife Ablation and Diathermy Fulguration of Posterior Urethral Valve; A Comparative Study

Jiaul Reza, Ipsita Biswas, Sabbir Karim, Rashedul Alam, Abdullah-Al- Mamun

Asian Journal of Pediatric Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajpr/2021/v7i130204

Background: Posterior urethral valve (PUV) is the most common obstructive anomaly of the urethra. Urethral valves have a wide range of clinical and anatomical presentations and today most patients are diagnosed in the prenatal or early neonatal period. Cold knife and diathermy fulguration are two of the technique of PUV ablation.

Objective: To find out early outcome of posterior urethral valve ablation between cold knife and diathermy fulguration.

Methodology: This prospective comparative interventional study was conducted in the Department of Pediatric surgery in Dhaka Shishu Hospital (DSH), Dhaka. 54 patients with PUV, admitted for valve ablation during study period were included in this study. Patients were divided in to two group. Among them, 27 were in Group-A, whose PUV ablation were done by cold knife and 27 were in Group-B whose PUV ablation were done by diathermy fulguration. Successful ablation was confirmed under endoscopic vision as well as with the demonstration of good stream following supra pubic compression, at the end of the procedure. All patients were kept with 72 hours of urethral catheterization (All silicon self retaining Foley’s catheter according to body texture ) .Post PUV ablation pt. were given discharged with prophylactic antibiotics on 4th POD.

Results: The mean age was found 18.37±16.13 months in cold knife ablation group and 12.70±11.03 months in diathermy fulguration group. Significant number (06/22.2%) of cases were associated with residual valve in diathermy fulguration group and non signicant number (301/3.7%) cases in cold knife ablation group . Significant number (04/14.8%) of cases were associated with post PUV ablation stricture urethra also in diathermy fulguration group and no stricture was found in cold knife ablation group . Significant hematuria. was present in 2(7.4%) in cold knife ablation group and 1(3.7%) in diathermy fulguration group.

Conclusion: This study concludes that use of cold knife in case of ablation of PUV causes less post ablation obstruction (residual valve and stricture urethra) than using diathermy fulguration and can be regarded a safe and better option for PUV treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association between Mother’s Literacy and INFANT & Young Child Feeding (IYCF) Practices and Nutritional Status of Urban under 5 Year Children

Reshma Nakte, Nimmathota Arlappa, Tata Arunakumari, Nagalla Balakrishna

Asian Journal of Pediatric Research, Page 29-35
DOI: 10.9734/ajpr/2021/v7i130208

Aim: To assess the association of mother’s literacy status with infant & young child feeding (IYCF) practices and nutritional status of urban under 5 year children.

Methods: A community based cross- sectional study was carried out among 356 urban children under 5 years from 30 randomly selected Anganwadi Centres (AWCs) in Hyderabad, during 2017-18. The information regarding infant & young child feeding (IYCF) practices was obtained from the mothers of under 5 year children. Anthropometric measurements such as height and weight of all the children were measured adopting standard procedures and using standard anthropometric equipment.

Results: About half of the mothers reportedly initiated breast feeding to their newborns within one hour of birth. The proportion of mothers fed pre-lacteals and colostrum to newborn was 35% and 96% respectively. A higher proportion of literate mothers (45.1%) exclusively breast fed their infants for the first 6 months as compared to their illiterate counterparts (32.9%). Significantly a higher proportion (63.3%) of literate mothers initiated complementary feeding to their infants soon after completion of 6 months as against 50% in illiterate mothers (p<0.05). The proportion of children with undernutrition i.e. underweight, stunting and wasting was 38.5%, 40.6% and 16.8%, respectively. The prevalence of underweight and stunting was significantly (p<0.05) higher among the children of illiterate mothers as compared to literate mothers.

Conclusion: In general, mother’s literacy was significantly associated with the IYCF practices as well as nutritional status of their children. Therefore, respective Governments should initiate appropriate measures to increase female literacy levels in India.