Open Access Case Study

Staphylococcal Epidermolysis: A Case Report

Nadia Mebrouk, Hamza Berrada, Yamna Kriouile, Asmaa Mdaghri Alaoui

Asian Journal of Pediatric Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajpr/2021/v7i330215

Acute staphylococcal epidermolysis, also known as staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), in young children is caused by the release of exfoliative toxins A and B (ETA and/or ETB) from an initial outbreak which can be ear-nose-throat, conjunctival or cutaneous.

Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is characterized by painful erythroderma, quickly followed by generalized detachment with respect to mucous surfaces, regressing in 2 to 4 days on antibiotics. The positive diagnosis is mainly based on clinical examination and sometimes on skin biopsy.

The course of the disease is benign, favored by anti-staphylococcal treatment combined with local care. However, the risk of fatal course is estimated at around 4% in the event of delay in antibiotic treatment. We report the case of an infant with SSSS, diagnosed and treated early with good evolution.

Open Access Case Study

Orbital Cellulitis in Children: Experience of the Pediatric Service at Mohammed v Military Hospital

Jihane Elmahi, A. Radi, M. Kmari, A. Hassani, R. Abilkasseme, A. Agadr

Asian Journal of Pediatric Research, Page 6-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajpr/2021/v7i330216

Background: Orbital cellulitis is a diagnostic and therapeutic emergency, jeopardizing the  vital and functional prognosis. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological, therapeutic and evolutional aspects of orbital cellulitis cases treated at the pediatric service at Mohamed V military hospital.

Patients and methods: retrospective study including all the children aged between 1 month and 15 years treated for orbital cellulitis at the pediatric service of the Mohamed V Hospital over a period of 3 years (1st January 2016-31st December 2019).

Results: 24 cases of orbital cellulitis were gathered. Age varied between 1 month and 15 years with a median of age of 6. years. Feminine predominance (58%) was noted .

The disease mainly involved the sinus (32%).Clinically, fever was present in 10 patients (41%),palpebral edema was universal, proptosis was noted in 5 cases(20.8%),chemosis and ptosis were noted in 4 cases(16.6%),bacteriological

testing identified micro-organisms in 3 cases. An orbital CT scan was performed in all cases of our study, showing preseptal cellulitis in 14 cases (58.3%), orbital cellulitis in 3 cases(12.5%),and orbital abscess in 7 cases.

The medical treatment consisted of ceftriaxone, metronidazole and aminoside or amoxicilline clavulanic acid, corticosteroid therapy prescribed in 5 cases. Surgical treatment was indicated in 3 patients.

The outcome of All cases was favorable.

Conclusion: The majority of our cases had a positive evolution highlighting the advantage of an early diagnosis, and adapted antibiotic and a multidisciplinary patient care making the need for surgery rarely necessary.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Budesonide, Epinephrine and Salbutamol Inhalation for Treatment of Transient Tachypnea of Newborn: Prospective Controlled Study

Ahmed M. El-Badawy, Ashraf M. Ibrahim, Abd El Rahman M. El-Mashad, Mostafa M. Awny

Asian Journal of Pediatric Research, Page 10-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajpr/2021/v7i330217

Background: Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) is a neonatal lung disease which has a picture of lung edema due to delayed resorption of lung fluids. It is commonly seen in full-term or late-preterm in­fants with an occurrence rate of 5.7 in 1,000 infants. The aim of this work was to compare the efficacy of inhaled budesonide, epinephrine and salbutamol for treatment of TTN.

Methods: This prospective controlled study was conducted on a100 full term neonates with presumed diagnosis of TTN. They were randomly assigned into four groups equally. Group I received nebulized budesonide, Group I received nebulized epinephrine, Group III received nebulized salbutamol and Group IV received nebulized normal saline.

Results: Salbutamol significantly decreased respiratory rate and TTN clinical score, duration of respiratory support along with hospitalization time and helped with reaching full feeding earlier compared to other groups.

Conclusions: Inhaled salbutamol significantly decreased TTN clinical score, shorter duration of respiratory support, hospitalization and earlier initiation of enteral feeding compared to placebo. Inhaled budesonide and epinephrine did not significantly reduce the duration of oxygen treatment, with no other significant effect on TTN.

Open Access Original Research Article

Predicting Factors among Healthy Lifestyle Beliefs, Behaviors and Mental Health Indicators in Taiwanese Adolescents

Shu-Min Chan, Bernadette Mazurek Melnyk, Angela Chia-Chen Chen

Asian Journal of Pediatric Research, Page 20-30
DOI: 10.9734/ajpr/2021/v7i330218

Aims: The prevalence of overweight adolescents in Taiwan has dramatically increased in recent years. A survey shows that 66.6% of adolescents do not get the recommended amount of vegetables and fruit (i.e., two portions of fruit and three portions of vegetables per day each week). The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between individual understanding of activity and nutrition, healthy lifestyle beliefs, perceived difficulty of efficacy in reaching health goals, mental health variables, and healthy lifestyle behavior on BMI in Taiwanese adolescents.

Study Design: This is a theoretically-based and cross-sectional research study.

Place and Duration of Study: Data were conducted from two middle schools in Taiwan between Sep 2011 to November 2011.

Methodology: We used a convenience sampling to recruit 453 adolescents with a mean age of 13.42 years. The instruments used were demographics, Beck Youth Inventory II (Depression, Anxiety, Self-concept), Healthy Lifestyle Belief Scale, Healthy Lifestyle Behavior Scale, Perceived Difficulty Scale, Nutrition and Activity Knowledge Scales. We conducted path analysis to test our theoretical model by using Mplus 5.21.

Results: Fit indices included χ2 (23, 453) =33.75, P= .05, CFI=.98, and RMSEA=.03, indicating that the model fit the model well. Healthy lifestyle beliefs had a significant positive effect on healthy lifestyle behaviors (β= .41, P= .01). Moreover, there was a significant negative relationship between perceived difficulty and healthy lifestyle behaviors (β= -.54, P= .01).

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that promoting positive beliefs about healthy lifestyle among adolescents may facilitate healthy lifestyle changes and help them perceive less difficulty in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. School nurses and health professionals in Taiwan need to coordinate essential resources and implement theoretical-based educational program that address issues on increasing adolescents’ healthy lifestyle beliefs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cross-Cultural Differences in Temperament Between the United States and the People’s Republic of China: A Longitudinal Comparison

Victoria Jones, Zhengyan Wang, Shangqing Yuan, Christie Pham, Samuel P. Putnam, Maria A. Gartstein

Asian Journal of Pediatric Research, Page 31-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajpr/2021/v7i330219

Aims: The present study assessed cross-cultural differences in temperament and temperament stability between children from the United States (US) and the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Goals of the study include examining differences in three temperament factors (surgency, negative affectivity, and regulation/effortful control), conducting comparisons on fine-grained dimensions of factors demonstrating significant cross-cultural differences, and comparing temperament stability from infancy to toddlerhood.

Methodology: The US sample (N = 147) and PRC sample (N = 128) consisted of children whose temperament was longitudinally assessed in infancy and toddlerhood using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised Short Form (IBQ-R SF) and the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire Short Form (ECBQ SF). Primary analyses involved evaluating mean differences in the three temperament factors: surgency, negative affectivity, and regulation/effortful control, with additional statistical tests conducted to investigate fine-grained distinctions.

Results: Findings revealed main effects of culture for each factor with culture x time interactions indicating negative affectivity significantly differed in toddlerhood, t(273) = -8.27, P < .001, d = 1.00, 98.75% CI [-0.70, -0.37], and regulation in infancy, t(273) = -5.17, P < .001, d = 0.62, 98.75% CI [-0.62, -0.22]. Specifically, the US sample exhibited higher surgency at both time points, lower negative affectivity in toddlerhood, and lower regulation in infancy. In addition, little difference was noted in temperament stability between the US and Chinese samples.

Conclusion: Our findings support previous reports identifying cultural differences in temperament and highlight that differences are not constant across early childhood, but rather that as development unfolds, their nature is subject to change.