Open Access Case Study

Macrophagic Activation Syndrome Revealing Hodgkin Lymphoma: Case Report

Nadia Mebrouk, Rachid Abilkassem, Anass Ayad, Aomar Agadr

Asian Journal of Pediatric Research, Page 7-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajpr/2022/v9i330266

Macrophage Activation Syndrome (MAS), or Haemophagocytosis Syndrome, is a clinical-biological entity characterized by the proliferation and non-specific activation of macrophages of the reticulo-histiocytic system, with phagocytosis of the blood elements formed. This syndrome can be primary in children or secondary to various conditions at any age. Its association with Hodgkin's lymphoma is exceptional. We report here a case of MAS that revealed Hodgkin's lymphoma in a 5-year-old child. And we underline the interest of an urgent diagnosis and a fast care because risk of evolution towards a fatal multivisceral failure.

Open Access Case Study

Cardiovascular Abnormalities in Williams-Beuren Syndrome

H. Aouraghe, A. Ayad, R. Abilkassem, A. Agadr

Asian Journal of Pediatric Research, Page 19-23
DOI: 10.9734/ajpr/2022/v9i330268

We present different cases of cardiovascular abnormalities in 3 patients with WS aged between 8months and 7 years. Williams-Beuren Syndrome is characterized by specific facial dysmorphism that may look like an “elfin face”, congenital heart diseases, cognitive disorder, social personality disorder and endocrinological abnormalities. WBS is generally sporadic, it is caused by de novo deletions, and has a recurrence risk lower than 5%. Early diagnosis of this syndrome is important to start therapy for other medical problems that may develop. Lifelong cardiac follow up is necessary because of the risks of developing vasculopathy or arterial hypertension. The importance of research during the neonatal period is pointed up in order to reduce morbidity and mortality rates and ensure a better quality of life during the development of these children.

Open Access Data Article

A Retrospective Study to Examine Nutrition Based Risk and Protective Factors in Relation to Diarrhoea Incidence in Children Aged Less Than Two Years in Tanzania

Aleswa Z. Swai, Oscar R. Mukasa, Rehema Idris Mzimbiri, Ruth Kumidi Mkopi, Mlemba Abbas Kamwe, Francis Levira

Asian Journal of Pediatric Research, Page 11-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajpr/2022/v9i330267

Background: Diarrhea disorders account for a significant portion of the morbidity and mortality burden among children in resource-constrained settings, and they are economically significant to both families and health systems. In real sense, any intervention that has shown the potential to reduce diarrhea-related mortality and morbidity is valuable in terms of the global child health agenda.

Objective: To explore the role of nutrition based risk and protective factors on diarrhea morbidity among children aged less than two years in Tanzania.

Methods: We analyzed household-based data on risks and preventive interventions including exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding, water, sanitation hygiene, and vitamin A supplementation. Data from the Tanzania Demographic Health Survey (TDHS) of 2015/2016 were used to describe odds of diarrhoea morbidity in children aged 0-5 months and 6-23 months. Multivariate logic regression models were developed to identify risk factors.

Results: Children aged less than 5 months, who were exclusively breastfed experienced a reduction in the odds of having diarrhoea by 72% (P-value <0.001), compared to those who were not exclusively breastfed. Children aged between 6 months and less than 23 months, from families with detergent at hand washing facility, experienced a reduction in the odds of having diarrhoea by 37% (P-value <0.01), compared to their peers in the other group. Diarrhoea odds were predicted to be higher in higher wealth quintile as compared to lowest group by 1.39 (P-value =0.028), 1.53 (P-value <0.01), 1.74 (P-value <0.01) and 1.78 (P-value =0.01) for second, middle, fourth to highest groups respectively.

Conclusions: The data has demonstrated the important role of exclusive breastfeeding and sanitation on diarrhoea occurrence amongst children aged less than 23 months in Tanzania. Yet there are areas for which it remains inconclusive and requires further work to improve insights and strength of available evidence so far.

Open Access Short Research Article

Adherence of Healthcare Professionals to Guidelines on Inpatient Management of Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition at the Upper East Regional Hospital in Ghana

Francis K. Wuni, Margaret W. Kukeba, Hilda N. K. Ayamsegna, Rasheed Ofosu-Poku

Asian Journal of Pediatric Research, Page 24-31
DOI: 10.9734/ajpr/2022/v9i330269

Aim: To assess the adherence of health professionals to guidelines on inpatient management of children aged 6-59 months admitted with severe acute malnutrition (SAM)

Study Design: Retrospective descriptive study

Place and Duration of Study: Paediatric Unit of the Upper East Regional Hospital, Ghana. Records of children seen from 1st January, 2016 to 30th April, 2018 were reviewed.

Methodology: Hospital records of 75 children discharged after treatment for SAM were assessed in the study. The records were selected using convenient sampling. Data analysis was done with SPSS version 20 and results presented using descriptive statistics.

Results: Eighty-eight percent (88%) of the patients were treated for presumed infections. Of this, only 8% of the children received the recommended Ampicillin and Gentamycin therapy. Over 97% of patients were given therapeutic diets (F-75), and 90.7% of patients were assessed for dehydration. However, only one (1.3%) of the children had their blood glucose levels checked on admission. None 0(0%) of the children were given 10% IV glucose to prevent hypoglycaemia on admission and only 21.2% of patients with dehydration received the recommended ReSoMal

Conclusion: There is inadequate adherence to the recommended guidelines for inpatient management of children with SAM. This requires exploring explanations to inform strategies that promote compliance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Foreign Body Aspiration in the Pediatric Population in Kuwait: Experience of 901 Cases

Derar AlShehab, Essa AlGhunaim, Yousef AlEid, Abdullah AlElewah, Hussain AlShimali

Asian Journal of Pediatric Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajpr/2022/v9i230265

Objective: The aim of this study is to report chest diseases hospital experience with foreign body aspiration in pediatric age group.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the data of all pediatric patients <18 years of age who underwent flexible and rigid bronchoscopy for suspected foreign body aspiration. Data was collected from a national tertiary center in Kuwait from 2009 until 2015. A total of 901 patients underwent rigid bronchoscopy for suspected foreign body aspiration. Foreign body aspiration was identified in 403 (44.7%) patients. History of choking, witnessed aspiration, respiratory distress, stridor, positive finding on chest x-ray and auscultation were significantly associated with positive bronchoscopy.

Conclusion: Detailed history, physical examination, radiological finding can be utilized to aid in the diagnosis of foreign body aspiration and prevent complications.